The collective, world-wide effort to combat doping in sport has come a long way since the idea was first conceived by the International Olympic Committee at meetings in Lausanne in 1999 with the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Four years later, in Copenhagen in 2003, the World Anti-Doping Code (Code) became the core document adopted by the sport movement and governments of the world as the framework for the global harmonised fight against doping in sport.
A revised rewrite of the code was completed in November 2007 in Madrid, which included a commitment to full compliance with the code by all international sports and governments. Acceptance of this revised 2007 Code commits sport worldwide to do all in its power, individually and collectively, to combat the scourge of doping, and to protect athletes’ rights to safe and fair competition.
The International Ice Hockey Federation is a signatory to the Code and follows the Code's mandate in all areas of its Anti-Doping work.
The World Anti-Doping Code (PDF, 885 kB)
The International Ice Hockey Federation follows the Prohibited List (List) as a signatory to the Code. The List was first published in 1963 under the leadership of the International Olympic Committee. Since 2004, as mandated by the Code, WADA is responsible for the preparation and publication of the List.
The List is a cornerstone of the Code and a key component of harmonisation.
It is an International Standard identifying Substances and Methods prohibited in-competition, out-of-competition, and in particular sports.
2016 Prohibited List (PDF, 255 kB)
Overview of modifications from 2015 to 2016 Prohibited List (PDF, 235 kB)
Athletes, like all others, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications. If the medication an athlete is required to take to treat an illness or condition happens to fall under the List, a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) may give that athlete the authorisation to take the needed medicine. The criteria for granting a TUE are: 1) the athlete would experience significant health problems without taking the prohibited substance or method, 2) the therapeutic use of the substance would not produce significant enhancement of performance and 3) there is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the otherwise prohibited substance or method. The IIHF has its own TUE Committee that grants TUEs for international level athletes in ice hockey.
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) - Standard Form (PDF, 39 kB)
International Standard for TUE 2016 (PDF, 312 kB)
The TUE is required for all IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship events, and for all Olympic ice hockey competitions and qualification events.
The Athlete Learning Program about Health and Anti-Doping (ALPHA) has been developed by WADA with the input of eLearning specialists, athletes, anti-doping specialists and anti-doping social scientists.
This tool is invented in order to provide positive solutions to athletes to stay clean. By studying all the performance-related areas, such as rest and recovery, training, nutrition and helping athletes to identify where they could do better by on solutions to allow continued progression in a clean way, not to list what is forbidden. The tool also allows athletes to recognize when they are in situations which put them at risk of doping, and provides them with ready-made solutions to resist pressures to dope.
The program consists of six sessions where the athlete has to help a teammate solve a problem. The learner is then provided with material such as a tutorial and other information/resources, and a moral reasoning activity. This allows the learner to help his/her teammates, by explaining the “how” and “why” of the solution.
The six sessions are:
- Ethical Reasons not to Dope
- Medical Reasons not to Dope
- The Doping Control Process
- Rights and Responsibilities
- Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE)
The final two sessions of the program concentrate on providing athletes with positive solutions to enhance performance, and ways to identify risk factors. Alpha is accessible at alpha.wada-ama.org
The term Registered Testing Pool refers to the pool of top level athletes or teams established by the International Ice Hockey Federation and National Anti-Doping Organisation who are subject to both In-Competition and Out-of-Competition testing as part of the International Ice Hockey Federation or National-Anti-Doping Organisation's test distribution plan.
National Anti-Doping Organisations have identified a pool of athletes who will register in their testing pool. The International Ice Hockey Federation will also identify a pool of athletes and teams who will be identified in their Registered Testing Pool. The players who are in the Registered Testing Pool for their National Anti-Doping Organisation must provide their whereabouts on a regular basis. The players and teams who are part of the Registered Testing Pool of the International Ice Hockey Federation must provide their whereabouts on a regular basis, including all training camps and schedules for the individual players with the team on a 24-hour basis. All players who belong to the International Ice Hockey Federation are subject to both In-Competition and Out-of-Competition testing on a year-round basis.
Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF), Atypical Findings (ATF) and Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRV)
The term Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) refers to a report from a World Anti-Doping Agency approved laboratory that indicates the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the use of a Prohibited Method.
The term Adverse Analytical Finding does not necessarily imply a positive test as the athlete may have a TUE (Therapeutic Use Exemption), an aTUE (Abbreviated Therapeutic Use Exemption) or may have elevated endogenous substances which are normal for his own system and do not necessarily reflect a positive doping infraction.
It is important to note that the percentage of adverse analytical findings does not identify the potential risk of doping in a sport, but rather reflects adverse findings which need further investigation. These investigations may include a justification of the use of a Prohibited Substance (TUE or aTUE) or the identification of an endogenous substance which need further testing (i.e. IRMS) or repeat testing on a monthly basis.
An AAF becomes a positive doping infraction only after a thorough investigation following due process, such as a hearing and a determination from the Disciplinary Committee that a doping infraction has occurred.
Please take note that the World Anti-Doping Agency releases early statistics on the number of AAF's in each sport on its website, and lists the percentage of tests which have shown or identified an AAF. This percentage therefore is not an accurate indication of true positive tests, but only of AAF's.
In-Competition Testing in ice hockey is testing that is conducted in connection with an International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship Tournament. The period of In-Competition as defined by the International Ice Hockey Federation is 24 hours before the first face-off of the event.
* excluding the tests done in the 2010 Olympic Winter Games.
As of 2011, the IIHF changed the format of reporting anti-doping statistics so that atypical findings are also indicated and calendar years are used.
World Anti-Doping Agency
Berlinger Special AG