The International Ice Hockey Federation (“IIHF”) is signatory to the World Anti-Doping Agency (“WADA”) Code (“WADC”). WADA is the governing body in the fight for a doping-free sporting environment.
Doping is not hOcKey and the IIHF fights with other stakeholders for clean sport.
- Preserve the concept of fair play
- Protect Clean Athletes
- Effective and efficient testing
- High standards based on intelligent testing
- Educate and inform, with cooperation of NADOs and MNAs
- Encourage athletes, coaches and doctors to say no to doping
WADA, NADOs and IIHF
WADA was established in 1999 as an international independent agency composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, and monitoring of the WADC – the document harmonizing anti-doping policies in all sports and all countries.
The International Ice Hockey Federation is a signatory to the WADC and follows the WADC's mandate in all areas of its Anti-Doping work. Our Member National Associations (MNAs), as our member, automatically follow the WADC as well.
The IIHF has different programs in regard to Anti-Doping and continually strives to ensure that its education and testing programs remain at the cutting edge of science and recognized good practice in all areas of prevention and detection.
Activities include in- and out-of-competition testing, providing education programs and sanctioning those who commit anti-doping rule violations to protect the clean athletes.
The IIHF works closely with the National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADOs). NADOs are organizations designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement national anti-doping rules, carry out anti-doping education, plan tests and adjudicate anti-doping rule violations at a national level. They may also test athletes from other countries competing within that nations border.
The IIHF and the NADOs coordinate their anti-doping programs and education plans, testing activities and exchange information and intelligence.
IIHF Doping Control Regulations
Testing & Intelligence
The aim of testing is to detect and deter doping among athletes to protect clean athletes.
Any player who is a member of an IIHF Member National Association may be required to undergo doping control at any time. The IIHF has implemented an Out-of-Competition (at a team training session, or at players’ homes) and In-Competition (after a game) Testing Program.
Doping controls may include samples of blood and urine, as well as screening for substances such as EPO and human growth hormone. No advance information is given as to when controls will take place. Over time, collected samples will build the biological passport which monitor players’ biomarkers. Variations in either the steroid profile may be indications of doping, as well as providing intelligence for target testing.
Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF), Atypical Findings (ATF) and Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRV)
The term Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) refers to a report from a WADA approved laboratory that indicates the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the use of a Prohibited Method.
The term AAF does not necessarily imply a positive test as the athlete may have a TUE (Therapeutic Use Exemption), or may have elevated endogenous substances which are normal for his own system and do not necessarily reflect a positive doping infraction.
It is important to note that the percentage of AAFs does not identify the potential risk of doping in a sport, but rather reflects adverse findings which need further investigation. These investigations may include a justification of the use of a Prohibited Substance (TUE or the identification of an endogenous substance which need further testing (i.e. IRMS) or repeat testing on a monthly basis.
An AAF becomes a positive doping infraction only after a thorough investigation following due process, such as a hearing and a determination from the IIHF Disciplinary Board that a doping infraction has occurred.
Please take note that the WADA releases early statistics on the number of AAF's in each sport on its website, and lists the percentage of tests which have shown or identified an AAF. This percentage therefore is not an accurate indication of true positive tests, but only of AAF's.
In-Competition Testing in ice hockey is testing that is conducted in connection with an International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship Tournament. The period of In-Competition as defined by the IIHF is 48 hours before the first face-off of the event and ends 48 hours after the end of the last game of the competition.
IIHF Testing Statistics
* excluding the tests done in the 2010 Olympic Winter Games.
As of 2011, the IIHF changed the format of reporting anti-doping statistics so that atypical findings are also indicated and calendar years are used.
The IIHF has been serving as Testing Authority and took over Results Management for the KHL and its affiliated leagues since the 2016/2017 season.
Long-term StorageDoping is constantly developing. Therefore the Anti-Doping Organizations are required to do the same. As such, the IIHF regularly reviews its Anti-Doping Strategy and Programs. An additional tool is the possibility to store all samples collected when the IIHF acted as the Testing Authority. The long-term storage allows a re-analysis at any time, in particular when required due to specific intelligence, or when new analytical techniques become available. This long-term sample storage allows anti-doping rule violations to be prosecuted up to ten years after they have been committed, and as such, provides a significant deterrent effect.
Definition of DopingDoping is not only taking a prohibited substance. Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs):
- Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample
- Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
- Refusing to submit to sample collection after being notified
- Failure to file athlete whereabouts information and missed tests
- Tampering with any part of the doping control process
- Possession of a prohibited substance or method
- Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
- Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete
- Complicity in an ADRV
- Prohibited association with athlete support personnel who has engaged in doping
IIHF Results Management and Disciplinary Board ProcedureIn case an AAF is reported to the IIHF, the athlete in question, via his Member National Association, will receive a first Notification from the IIHF with respect to this AAF. This notice sets out the details regarding the AAF and indicates the next steps to be taken by the athlete.
Following this first Notification, the athlete has to indicate to the IIHF, whether he/she wants his/her B sample to be tested and, if applicable, whether the athlete wants a provisional hearing. In addition, the athlete will be invited to submit any comments, documents and/or evidence to the IIHF with respect to the AAF.
Then, as soon as the athlete indicates to the IIHF whether he/she wants his/her B Sample to be tested, the athlete will receive a Second Notification. In this second Notification, the IIHF will propose a sanction to the athlete. With respect to this sanction, the athlete shall have the right to admit to the AAF, waive his/her right to a disciplinary proceeding, including a Formal Hearing, in front of the IIHF Disciplinary Board and accept the proposed suspension, or request that his/her case will be submitted to the IIHF Disciplinary Board for adjudication in accordance with the IIHF Disciplinary Code.
In case the athlete chooses to admit to the AAF, waive his/her right to a disciplinary proceeding, including a Formal Hearing before the IIHF Disciplinary Board and to accept the sanction proposed by the IIHF, that sanction will immediately be imposed on the athlete.
In the event that the athlete opts to have his/her case submitted to the IIHF Disciplinary Board, the athlete will receive a Letter from the IIHF Disciplinary Board. This Letter invites the athlete to submit his/her written comments with respect to the AAF to the IIHF within 21 days. The athlete must also indicate to the IIHF whether he/she wants a hearing before the IIHF Disciplinary Board or if he/she prefers a written procedure.
The hearing before the IIHF Disciplinary Board is always held in the IIHF premises in Zurich and can be attended in person or via video conference call.
Lastly, after going through all of the abovementioned procedural steps, the IIHF Disciplinary Board will issue a reasoned decision.
|Person||Nationality||committed ADRV||prohibited substance/methods||Sanction||Final Appeal Decision||Starting Date||End Date|
|Filip Lestan||SVK||Art. 2.1||dehydrochlormethyltestosterone metabolites - S1 Anabolic Androgenic Steroids||3 years and 6 months||09.04.2018||15.03.2017||15.09.2020|
|Marko Kettunen||EST||Art. 2.1||Clenbuterol - S1 Anabolic Androgenic Steroids||4 years||10.06.2018||28.05.2018||28.05.2022|
|Lukasz Bartak||CZE||Art. 2.1||Higenamine - S3 Beta-2 Agonists||18 months||28.05.2019||09.02.2019||09.08.2020|
|Yevgeni Kuznetsov||RUS||Art. 2.1||Cocaine - S6. Stimulants||4 years||23.08.2019||13.06.2019||12.06.2023|
|Michael Budd||CAN||Art. 2.1||Cocaine - S6. Stimulants||2 years||04.03.2020||05.12.2019||05.12.2021|
|Kirill Dyakov||RUS||Art. 2.1||Cocaine & Benzoylecgonine - S6 Stimulants||15 months||04.03.2020||02.11.2019||02.02.2021|
|Vladislav Nikiforov||KAZ||Art. 2.1||Meldonium - S4.5 Metabolic modulators||15 months||04.03.2020||08.11.2019||08.02.2021|
|Anton Borodkin||RUS||Art. 2.1||5-methylhexan-2-amine - S6b. Stimulants||8 months||08.07.2020||16.02.2020||16.10.2020|
|Nikolai Shashkov||RUS||Art. 2.1||tuaminoheptane - S6b Stimulants||8 months||08.07.2020||13.03.2020||13.11.2020|
|Ilya Altybarmakyan||RUS||Art. 2.1||Cocaine - S6. Stimulants||4 years||02.11.2020||24.03.2020||24.03.2024|
|Maria Tyugankina||RUS||Art. 2.1||Furosemide - S5 Diuretics and Masking Agents||8 months||15.01.2020||15.09.2020|
Consequences of DopingAthletes should be aware that doping can have severe health and social consequences.
Health ConsequencesSubstances and methods used to dope have health consequences. Many can lead to severe health issues or even death.
Medications are for people with health issues and were not developed for healthy athletes. Even medications purchasable in pharmacies are not approved to be used in higher doses or in combination with other substances.
All medications have side effects and can damage your body when your body doesn’t need them.
Not only the substances can have a negative effect on your body, but also the type of administration. If you use a syringe to dope, you have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases as HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis.
Social ConsequencesSocial consequences of committing an ADRV and receiving a sanction may include:
- wiping out of previous achievements
- damaged relationships with friends and family
- isolation from peers and sport
- damage to future career prospects
- effects on emotional and psychological well-being
- loss of credibility and respect
- loss of sponsorship deals
- loss of income
Legal Consequences and SanctionsA player or staff member committing an ADRV may be suspended for two to four years and multiple violations lead to longer sanctions, even to lifetime ineligibility.
Doping can have additional consequences for the team you are playing for. Your team may be imposed with loss of points, disqualification from a competition or event, or other sanctions.
Harm of doping to the spirit of sportBesides the consequences for a doped athlete (and maybe his team), doping additionally damages the integrity, image, fairness and value of sport.
If you take banned substances you don’t only cheat yourself, your team and your fans. You betray the sport you love and dedicated so much of your life to.
Rights and ResponsibilitiesEvery athlete has the right to clean sport.
The principle of strict liability applies in anti-doping – If it is in the athlete’s body – the athlete is responsible for it.
Athletes’ responsibilities include (but are not limited to):
- complying with the IIHF’s Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the WADC);
- being available for sample collection (urine or blood), whether in-competition or out-of-competition at all times;
- ensuring that no prohibited substance enters his body and that no prohibited method is used;
- making sure that any treatment is not prohibited according to the Prohibited List in force and checking this with the prescribing physicians, or directly with the IIHF if necessary;
- applying to the IIHF for a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) if no alternative permitted treatment is possible and a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) is required
- reporting immediately for sample collection after being notified of a doping control;
- ensuring the accuracy of the information entered on the doping control form during sample collection (including stating any medications and supplements taken within the seven days prior to sample collection, and where the sample collected is a blood sample, blood transfusions within the previous three months);
- cooperating with anti-doping organizations investigating anti-doping rules violations (ADRVs); and
- not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other athlete support personnel who are ineligible on account of an ADRV or who have been criminally convicted or professionally disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited Association List).
Note: during doping control, the athlete must remain within direct observation of the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone at all times from when the initial contact is made until the completion of the sample collection procedure. The athlete must also produce identification upon request.
Athletes’ rights include (but are not limited to):
- during the doping control:
- bringing a representative and, if available, an interpreter;
- asking for additional information about the sample collection process;
- requesting a delay in reporting to the doping control station for valid reasons (International Standard for Testing and Investigations Art. 5.4.4); and
- requesting modifications for athletes with impairments (if applicable).
- requesting and attending the B sample analysis (in the case of an Adverse Analytical Finding); and
- in the case of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) being asserted, the athlete has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.
Coaches, trainers, managers, agents and other support personnel have a role in defending clean sport and supporting the athletes in the anti-doping processes.
Athlete Support Personnels’ obligations include (but are not limited to):
- knowing and complying with all applicable anti-doping policies and rules, including the IIHF’s Anti-Doping Rules [and relevant policies if applicable] (in line with the WADC); and
- refraining from possessing a prohibited substance (or a prohibited method)*, administering any such substance or method to an athlete, trafficking, covering up an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) or other forms of complicity and associating with a person convicted of doping (prohibited association). These are ADRVs applicable to Athlete Support Personnel under Article 2 of the WADC and Article 2 of the IIHF’s Anti-Doping Rules.
Athlete Support Personnel’s rights include (but are not limited to):
- In the case of an ADRV being asserted, the Athlete Support Personnel has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.
Education ToolsDoping is not hOcKey!
The message of the green puck campaign is simple and clear. “Doping is not hockey” is the slogans written on the green pucks that were used for the warm-up and that are supported by prominent players, coaches, referees and other hockey personalities from around the globe that can be seen on the video below this text.
The IIHF believes in the true spirit of sports and rejects any use of doping and drugs. This message is emphasized in the campaign in co-operation with the WADA.
ALPHA - eLearning Tool for Athletes
ALPHA was developed by WADA with the input of eLearning specialists, athletes, anti-doping specialists and social scientists. It is currently available in 7 languages. The aim of this tool is to modify attitudes and have an impact on intentions to dope. It provides factual information about anti-doping (Ethical Reasons not to Dope, Medical Reasons not to Dope, the Doping Control Process, Rights and Responsibilities, TUEs, Whereabouts) and values-based activities.
Play True Quiz
WADA's Play True Quiz is an interactive computer game that tests athletes and their entourage’s knowledge about anti-doping. It is currently available in 36 languages. As an integral element of its Outreach Program, WADA devoted considerable resources to the development of this interactive computer game which has been showcased at major events including the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games and many international events.
CoachTrue is an online learning tool that enables coaches to learn more about the fight against doping, and thus to be more effective in preventing it. This software was developed by WADA. It provides separate platforms for elite athlete coaches and recreational sport coaches.
Coach’s Tool Kit
The Coach’s Tool Kit provides anti-doping organizations, coaching associations and universities with material that can be integrated directly into existing coach education curricula or used as a stand-alone workshop.
Sport Physician’s Tool Kit (SPTK) – download version/ online version
The SPTK is designed to inform sport physicians and team doctors of their specific responsibilities relating to anti-doping to ensure they are fully informed and understand issues specific to them. It also includes information on specific policies relating to Major Games such as needle policies, bringing and prescribing medication at Games.
World Anti-Doping CodeThe WADC is the core document that harmonizes anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities around the world. It works in conjunction with five International Standards which aim to foster consistency among anti-doping organizations in various areas: testing; laboratories; Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs); the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods; and the protection of privacy and personal information. The 2015 Code is the revised edition of the 2009 Code.
The World Anti-Doping Code (PDF, 885 kB)
The International Standards
The Prohibited List identifies substances and methods prohibited in-competition, at all times (i.e. in- and out-of-competition) and in particular sports. Substances and methods are classified by categories (e.g. steroids, stimulants, masking agents). The list is updated annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA.
It is each athlete’s responsibility to ensure that no prohibited substance enters his/her body and that no prohibited method is used.
Since ice hockey is a social sport and therefore social drugs can be a problem, the IIHF provides a factsheet with a description of common recreational (social) drugs and the consequences they can have on the mind and body.
Many of the substances on the Prohibited List have no medical application, but for those that do, the list only contains the generic names of the pharmaceutical substances; the list does not contain brand names of the medications or synonyms, which vary from country to country. Before taking any medication, please make sure to check with your prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance.
The IIHF will only allow an athlete to use a prohibited substance for medical reasons if the athlete has a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the substance that the IF has granted or recognized (see below Therapeutic Use Exemptions).
1. Check that the generic name or International Non-proprietary Name (INN) of any active ingredient is not prohibited under the Prohibited List (‘in-competition only’ or at ‘all times’). For example, Modafinil (INN) is prohibited in-competition according to the Prohibited List and is in sold in English-speaking countries under brand names such as Alertec®, Modavigil® and Provigil®. These brand names do not appear on the List.
2. Check that the medication does not contain any pharmaceutical substances that would fall within a general category that is prohibited. Many sections of the Prohibited List only contain a few examples and state that other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) are also prohibited.
3. Be aware that intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 100mL per 12-hour period are prohibited, regardless of the status of the substances.
4. If you have any doubt, contact the IIHF (or your NADO).
Useful Online Databases*
The following online country-specific drug reference databases are also available for checking the status of a medication bought in that country.
GlobalDRO* (for Canada, UK, USA, Japan, Australia and Switzerland)
RUSADA Check the Medication*
* Important note: the IIHF and WADA do not confirm that the information provided on these websites is accurate, and as such, the Athlete assumes all responsibility when taking any substances indicated as acceptable on these websites.
2019 Prohibited List (PDF, 3.8 MB)
2020 Prohibited List (PDF, 241 kB)
2021 Prohibited List (PDF, 2.8 MB)
Modifications for 2019 (PDF, 82 kb)
Recreational Drugs Factsheet (PDF, 149 kb)
Therapeutic Use ExemptionAthletes, like all others, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications. If the medication an athlete is required to take to treat an illness or condition happens to fall under the List, a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) may give that athlete the authorization to take the needed medicine. The criteria for granting a TUE are:
- a) The Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method in question is needed to treat an acute or chronic medical condition, such that the Athlete would experience a significant impairment to health if the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method were to be withheld.
- b) The Therapeutic Use of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method is highly unlikely to produce any additional enhancement of performance beyond what might be anticipated by a return to the Athlete’s normal state of health following the treatment of the acute or chronic medical condition.
- c) There is no reasonable Therapeutic alternative to the Use of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.
- d) The necessity for the Use of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method is not a consequence, wholly or in part, of the prior Use (without a TUE) of a substance or method which was prohibited at the time of such Use.
The IIHF has its own TUE Committee that grants TUEs in accordance with the International Standard for TUEs and the criteria laid out in article 4 of this standard, for international level athletes in ice hockey. *
If the TUE is granted, the athlete will then be permitted to use the medication during the period of validity of the TUE without committing an Anti-Doping Rules Violation (ADRV).
Regardless of whether a TUE has been granted or not, athletes should always declare on the doping control forms filled out during sample collection any medications and supplements taken within the seven days prior to sample collection, and any blood transfusions in the three months prior for blood samples.
If an International Level Athlete* already has a TUE approved by his NADO, the application shall be sent to the IIHF office as well for review and recognition. The IIHF automatically recognizes TUEs approved by NADOs that have been recognized in minimum of five times.
TUEs approved by the following NADOs will be automatically approved by the IIHF:
Please send all TUE applications to [email protected].
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) - Standard Form (PDF, 155 kB)
International Standard for TUE 2016 (PDF, 312 kB)
The TUE is required for all IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship events, and for all Olympic ice hockey competitions and qualification events.
*Please refer to the IIHF Anti-Doping Regulations for the definition of the “International Level Athlete”
Nutritional SupplementsExtreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. A number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, poor labelling or contamination of dietary supplements.
The use of dietary supplements by athletes is a concern because in many countries the manufacturing and labelling of supplements may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under Anti-Doping regulations. In addition to a poorly labelled supplement, most of the industry is served by third party manufactures that produce products for many different brands. Poor cleaning procedures and quality control procedures could lead to cross contamination. Taking a poorly labelled or contaminated dietary supplement is not an adequate defence in a doping hearing.
Neither WADA nor the IIHF is involved in any supplement certification process and therefore do not certify or endorse manufacturers or their products. WADA and the IIHF do not control the quality or the claims of the supplements industry. However, there are a few programs and organizations checking and certifying products.
Athletes who insist on using dietary supplements should consider the following prior to using any form of dietary supplement.
- Not many claimed benefits of dietary supplements are supported by scientific research.
- Consider a healthy, well balanced diet over supplement intake. A qualified nutritionist can help you put a nutrition plan in place.
- Seek professional guidance to assess your needs and get the appropriate supplements.
- Research well known products and avoid purchasing supplements over the internet.
- Avoid purchasing products from a manufacturer who also produces supplements that contain prohibited substances.
- Avoid sharing supplements with other athletes or friends.
- The only way to remove the risks of supplement intake is to completely avoid them.
WhistleblowersWADA has launched the “Speak-up” Program which is a secured whistleblower platform for everybody who would like to report detected, identified, witnessed, know of or has reasonable grounds for suspecting doping misconduct.
The Speak-up team is experienced in intelligence and investigations and treats all information that is shared with utmost confidentiality.
If you like to report doping misconduct, please visit the Speak-up! Webpage or get in contact with the IIHF.