What is Competition Manipulation?Competition Manipulation occurs when a player, coach or official cheats in order to remove the unpredictability of a competition.
The IIHF rules prohibit 4 forms of Competition Manipulation:
- NO BETTING: A player, official and/or player support personal cannot bet on ice hockey games.
- NO MATCH FIXING: A player, official and/or player support personal cannot fix an ice hockey game by engaging in behavior which is aimed at the improper alteration of the ice hockey game.
- NO SHARING INSIDER INFORMATION: A player, official and/or player support personal cannot share information (such as team tactics or injuries) exclusively known to him due to his involvement with his team or the ice hockey game.
- ALWAYS REPORT: A player, official and/or player support personal must always report any suspicious behavior related to competition manipulation.
Relevant RulesThe IIHF rules on Competition Manipulation are contained within the IIHF Code of Conduct, and include the following:
Rule 3: Manipulation of Competitions; Betting and Inside Information
Rule 3 of this Code is adopted as a means of safeguarding the integrity of ice hockey by (i) prohibiting any conduct that may improperly impact the outcome of ice hockey events and competitions and (ii) establishing a mechanism of enforcement and sanctioning for those who, through their prohibited conduct, place the integrity of ice hockey at risk. While the IIHF will respect all national decisions with respect to Competition Manipulation in ice hockey, it reserves the right to conduct an investigation in accordance with Rule 6 of this Code and implement disciplinary measures in accordance with Rule 5 of this Code, for all Violations which would result in a Violation of Rule 3 of this Code if such incident occurred in an IIHF Competition as long as the national decision has or could have an international dimension.
For purposes of Rule 3 of this Code, the following definitions shall be applicable:
Benefit: means the direct or indirect receipt or provision of money or an equivalent such as, but not limited to, bribes, gains, gifts and other advantages including, without limitation, winnings and/or potential winnings as a result of a wager. The foregoing shall not include official prize money, appearance fees or payments to be made under sponsorship or other contracts.
Betting: means any wager of a stake of monetary value in the expectation of a prize of monetary value, subject to a future and uncertain occurrence related to an IIHF Competition (herein defined according to IIHF Bylaw 1), international ice hockey game or national ice hockey game.
Inside Information: means information relating to any competition, that a person possesses by virtue of his or her position in relation to a sport or competition, excluding any information already published or common knowledge, easily accessible to interest members of the public or disclosed in accordance with the rules and regulations governing the relevant competition.
Player Support Personnel: means any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, team official, medical or paramedical personnel working with or treating players participating in or preparing for an IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game or national ice hockey game (herein incorporated into the definition of an IIHF Covered Party by reference for purposes of Rule 3).
3.1 Betting Violations
The following behavior shall be considered Betting, and is strictly prohibited:
3.1.1 Participation in any form of Betting related to (a) an IIHF Competition, an international ice hockey game or a national ice hockey game; or (b) any event of a multisport Competition in which the player or the IIHF Covered Party participates.
3.1.2 Inducing, instructing, encouraging or facilitating any other party to engage in conduct described in Rule 3.1.1 of this Code.
3.2 Manipulation of IIHF Competitions, International Ice Hockey Games and National Ice Hockey Games
The following behavior shall constitute a Manipulation of an IIHF Competition, an international ice hockey game or a national ice hockey game, and is strictly prohibited:
3.2.1 An intentional arrangement, act or omission aimed at an improper alteration of the result, progress, outcome, conduct or any other aspect of an IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game or national ice hockey game in order to remove all or part of the unpredictable nature of the event with a view to obtaining a sporting advantage or an undue Benefit for oneself or for others.
3.2.2 Providing, requesting, receiving, seeking or accepting a Benefit related to the manipulation of an IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game or national ice hockey game or any other form of corruption.
3.2.3 Inducing, instructing, encouraging or facilitating an IIHF Covered Party to engage in conduct described in Rule 3.2 of this Code.
3.3 Inside Information
The following behavior shall constitute an improper use of Inside Information, and is strictly prohibited:
3.3.1 Using Inside Information for the purpose of Betting, any form of manipulation of an IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game or national ice hockey game or any other corrupt purpose by a Covered Party.
3.3.2 Disclosing Inside Information to any person and/or entity, with or without Benefit, where the Covered Party knew or should have known that such disclosure might lead to the information being used for the purposes of Betting, any form of manipulation of an IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game or national ice hockey game or any other corrupt purpose.
3.3.3 Giving and/or receiving a Benefit for the provision of Inside Information regardless of whether any Inside Information is actually provided.
3.4 General Violations
The following behavior by any IIHF Covered Party shall constitute a General Violation of Rule 3 of this Code:
3.4.1 Knowingly assisting, aiding, abetting, attempting, covering up or otherwise being complicit in the commission of any acts or omissions of the type described in Rule 3 of this Code.
3.4.2 Failing to disclose to the IIHF or Directorate Chairman, at the first available opportunity, full details of any approaches, invitations to engage in conduct, or incidents that would amount to a breach of Rule 3 of this Code and/or competition rules relating to betting and/or matching fixing.
3.4.3 Failing to cooperate with any reasonable investigation carried out by the IIHF or Directorate Chairman or their designees relating to Rule 3 of this Code, including without limitation, failing to provide accurately, completely and without undue delay any information and/or documentation and/or access or assistance requested by the IIHF or Directorate Chairman as part of an investigation.
3.4.4 Obstructing or delaying any investigation that may be carried out by the IIHF or Directorate Chairman in relation to a possible Violation of Rule 3 of this Code, including without limitation concealing, tampering with or destroying any documentation or other information that may be relevant to an investigation.
3.5 Sentencing Considerations
3.5.1 Any attempt by an IIHF Covered Party, or any agreement by an IIHF Covered Party with any other person, to engage in conduct that would culminate in the commission of any Violation of Rule 3 of this Code shall be treated as if a Violation had been committed, whether or not such attempt or agreement in fact resulted in such Violation. However, when the IIHF Covered Party immediately and/or promptly discloses, to the IIHF and/or the Directorate Chairman, his attempt or agreement prior to it being discovered by a third party not involved in the attempt or agreement, such action shall be a mitigating factor in establishing the sanction to be assessed.
3.5.2 The following are not relevant to the determination of whether a Violation of Rule 3 of this Code has occurred:
a) Whether or not the IIHF Covered Party is participating in the IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game or national ice hockey game concerned;
b) The nature or outcome of any Betting issue;
c) The outcome of the IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game and/or national ice hockey game on which the Competition Manipulation occurred;
d) Whether or not the IIHF Covered Party’s efforts or performance (if any) in any IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game and/or national ice hockey game in issue were (or could be expected to be) affected by the acts or omissions in question;
e) Whether or not the results in the IIHF Competition, international ice hockey game and/or national ice hockey game in issue were (or could be expected to be) affected by the acts or omissions in question; and
f) Whether or not the manipulation included a violation of any other IIHF rule.
3.6 Provisional Suspension Pending Disciplinary Proceedings
3.6.1 Outside IIHF Competitions, the IIHF General Secretary, and inside IIHF Competitions, the Directorate Chairman, may impose a provisional suspension, for any Violation of Rule 3 of this Code when the available facts establish, that the IIHF Covered Party may have engaged in an activity which is a Violation of Rule 3 of this Code.
3.6.2 A provisional suspension can only be imposed if the IIHF Covered Party is given either (a) an opportunity for a provisional hearing before the imposition of the provisional suspension, or (b) on a timely basis after the imposition of the provisional suspension, an opportunity for an expedited hearing in accordance with the IIHF Disciplinary Code.
Monitoring of CompetitionsThe IIHF monitors all IIHF Competitions all over the world through elaborate mechanisms and cooperation with sports experts, betting operators and police forces. The IIHF has entered into monitoring partnerships with:
(1) IOC INTEGRITY BETTING INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM (IBIS)
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